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tDCS stands for transcranial direct current stimulation. It is a non-invasive form of neuromodulation that involves delivering low-intensity electrical currents to specific regions of the brain through electrodes placed on the scalp. During tDCS, a weak direct current is applied to the scalp using an anode (positive electrode) and a cathode (negative electrode). The current flows between these electrodes and influences the excitability of underlying brain areas. The purpose of tDCS is to modulate cortical excitability, promoting or inhibiting neural activity in targeted brain regions. This can have potential therapeutic effects on various neurological and psychiatric conditions.
tACS stands for transcranial alternating current stimulation. It is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that involves applying a weak electrical current to the scalp to modulate brain activity. tACS works by delivering alternating current at specific frequencies to target regions of the brain, aiming to enhance or suppress neuronal activity in those areas. It is primarily used in research settings to investigate the effects of electrical stimulation on cognitive processes and brain function.